The effects of birth order and sex on self-concept Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/wh246v34q

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  • Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of birth order, sex, and the interaction of birth order and sex on the self concept as measured by the 29 mean scores of the Tennessee Self- Concept Scale (TSCS). Procedures: This research is restricted to 168 students enrolled in Education, Family Life, and Psychology classes at Oregon State University. The control variables used in making the sample selection were sibling's sex, age spacing of the subject and subject's sibling, cultural background, socio-economic status, and subject's age. These subjects were administered the TSCS during the Fall quarter of 1973 and were than divided into the following three main groups: 1) The Inflated Score Group - 37 subjects with false positive TSCS scores. 2) The Honest Group - 131 subjects with valid TSCS scores. 3) The Total Group - 168 subjects from the Inflated Score Group plus the Total Group. Identification of subjects within these three groups allowed for separate evaluations of the subject's TSCS scores that were seriously inflated by defensiveness. Statistical Design: The following null hypotheses were tested for significance at the .05 level on the Inflated Score Group, the Honest Group, and the Total Group: 1) There is no difference between mean scores for first borns and later borns for any of the 29 TSCS scores. 2) There is no difference between mean scores of males and females for any of the 29 TSCS scores. 3) There is no interaction effect between birth order and sex as measured by any of the 29 TSCS mean scores. The level to be reached for significance for all statistical procedures was set at the .05 level. The statistical procedure used as a basis for retention or rejection of the null hypothesis was the 2 ;: 2 fixed model analysis of variance design which used the "F" statistic. Findings: (A) Inflated Score Group: The null hypotheses were accepted. (B) Honest Group: Null hypothesis one and three were accepted with null hypothesis two being rejected. The TSCS scores that resulted in having a significant sex effect for this group were the Positive - Identity Score, the Distribution Sub-Score 2, the Distribution Sub-Score 1, the Psychosis Score, and the Personality Disorder Score. The males had significantly higher Distribution Sub-Score 2 mean scores and Psychosis mean scores as compared to females. The females had significantly higher Positive - Identity mean scores, Distribution Sub-Score 1 mean scores, and Personality Disorder Mean Scores. (C) Total Group: Null hypothesis one and three were accepted with null hypothesis two being rejected. The TSCS scores that resulted in having a significant sex effect for this group were the Positive - Identity Score, the Psychosis Score, and the Personality Disorder Score. The males had significantly higher Psychosis mean scores as compared to females. The females had significantly higher Positive - Identity mean scores and Personality Disorder mean scores as compared to males. Conclusions: Although there was no significant birth order or interaction effect between birth order and sex, there was a significant sex effect. This indicated that males had lower self-concepts than females as measured by the following TSCS scores: the Personality Disorder Score, the Psychosis Score, the Positive - Identity Score, and the Distribution Sub-Score 1. Males did have significantly higher Distribution Sub-Scale 2 mean scores than females.
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