Nutritional regulation of adipocyte differentiation in animals Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/z890rx277

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  • The incidence of obesity has increased in the U.S. until an obesity epidemic now exists. American consumers are acutely aware of the consequences of obesity and are increasingly associating the consumption of high-fat foods with having a negative impact upon their health. This has in turn forced producers to grow leaner animals. Since excess fat is an undesired commodity, the need to understand mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue differentiation has never been more important. Understanding the underlying regulation of adipogenesis is a vital first step toward developing strategies that limit fat accretion in growing animals. The resulting increase in consumer demand and improved productive efficiency associated with such technologies should ensure that the animal industry will remain solvent in the years to come. However, despite a great deal of effort directed at elucidating the regulation of adipogenesis during the last decade, our understanding of adipose tissue growth and development in agriculturally important animals remains very limited. This study used a porcine stromal-vascular cell primary culture system to study the nutritional regulation of adipogenesis. Specifically, the underlying molecular mechanism governing the anti-adipogenic actions of retinoic acid and conjugated linoleic acids was investigated. Retinoic acid inhibited the differentiation of pig preadipocytes through activating the RARa receptor and inhibiting the expression of the key adipogenic transcription factors PPARy and ADD1 while simultaneously increasing the expression of COUP-TF. Conjugated linoleic acids inhibited the differentiation of pig preadipocytes in an isomer-specific fashion via a mechanism that also involved reduced expression of PPARy and ADD 1 and the increase of COUP-TF message abundance. Importantly, C/EBPa and β expression was unaffected in either study. Finally, feeding retinoic acid to growing broilers at levels 32 times greater than the minimum NRC requirements tested the hypothesis that retinoic acid is a potent inhibitor of adipogenesis. Feeding retinoic acid decreased total carcass lipid by 14% and abdominal fat mass by 10%. However, abdominal fat retinoic acid levels were unaltered by the diet suggesting that a physiological mechanism exists in the chicken which prevented retinoic acid from accumulating in adipose tissue and may have limited the response to supplementing the diet with retinoic acid.
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