A direct comparison of non-destructive techniques for determining bridging stress distributions Public Deposited

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  • Crack bridging is an important source of crack propagation resistance in many materials and the bridging stress distribution as a function of crack opening displacement is widely believed to represent a true material property uninfluenced by sample geometry, loading conditions, and other extrinsic factors. Accordingly, accurate measurement of the bridging stress distribution is needed and many non-destructive methods have been developed. However, there are many challenges to accurately determining bridging stresses. A comparison of bridging stresses measured using R-curve, crack opening displacement (COD), and spectroscopy methods has been made using two bridging ceramics, Y₂O₃ and MgO doped Si₃N₄ and 99.5% pure Al₂O₃. The COD method is surface sensitive and gives a lower peak bridging stress compared to the R-curve technique which samples through the entire material thickness. This is attributed to a more compliant near surface bridging zone. Conversely, when R-curves rise steeply over the first few micrometers of growth from a notch, an effect of negative T-stress is expected to raise the R-curve determined peak bridging stress. Spectroscopy methods were only found to yield reliable bridging stress results if a reasonable through thickness volume of material is sampled. It was found that 2.5% of the specimen thickness achieved using fluorescence spectroscopy appears adequate for Al₂O₃ while 0.1–0.2% of the sample thickness achieved using Raman spectroscopy for Si₃N₄ appears inadequate. Overall, it is concluded that in the absence of T-stresses a bridging distribution can be determined that is a true material property. Also, a new method is proposed for determining the bridging stresses of fatigue cracks from (1) the bridging stress distribution for monotonically loaded cracks and (2) experimental fatigue data.
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  • Greene, R., Gallops, S., Funfschilling, S., Fett, T., Hoffmann, M., Ager, J., & Kruzic, J. (2012). A direct comparison of non-destructive techniques for determining bridging stress distributions. JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS, 60(8), 1462-1477. doi: 10.1016/j.jmps.2012.04.007
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